1. The word has been traced back to use in Provence and Gascony, where it was used to describe anything which brought luck to a household. Suggestions were rife that that the word is derived from the Provincial French word for "concealed" , but thus is improbable. The word was first popularized in 1880, when French composer Edmond Audran wrote a popular comic operetta (the title of which is a direct reference to it). However, it had been in use in France long before this, as French slang among gamblers, derived from an Occitan word meaning "witch", and also another one meaning "spell." Audran's operetta was so popular that it was translated into English, introducing the word into the English language with its current definition.
2. The success and resulting cultural influence of the film X has spawned many references. The use of the nicknames (used in the film) in masculine communication, particularly "Y" and "Z", is often replicated or parodied. The masculine theme of the film has been the subject of humorous examination, with the homoerotic subtext examined in a monologue by Quentin Tarantino in Sleep with Me. X has also been spoofed in the 1991 film Hot Shots! starring Charlie Sheen, and liberally borrowed from in the 2004 Bollywood film Agnipankh. A quote from the film is one among AFI's 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes, which is directly referenced in a successful game franchise. Identify X, Y and Z.
3. simple one: The first time the phrase __________ was used was after X performed a concert in Shreveport, Louisiana, in 1954, by announcer Al Dvorin. It was then used by promoter Horace Lee Logan on December 15, 1956, to plead with concert goers not to leave a concert hall to try to see X as he exited, and instead remain to see the other acts on the bill. The full quotation was "Please, young people... __________. He has gotten in his car and driven away.... Please take your seats." Who is X and what is the phrase?